Answered directly by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)
What are vaccines?
Vaccines are health products that trigger protective immune responses in pets and prepare them to fight future infections from disease-causing agents. Vaccines can lessen the severity of future diseases and certain vaccines can prevent infection altogether. Today, a variety of vaccines are available for use by veterinarians
Is it important to vaccinate?
Yes! Pets should be vaccinated to protect them from many highly contagious and deadly diseases. Experts agree that widespread use of vaccines within the last century has prevented death and disease in millions of animals. Even though some formerly common diseases have now become uncommon, vaccination is still highly recommended because these serious disease agents continue to be present in the environment.
Are there risks associated with vaccination?
Vaccines have protected millions of animals from illness and death caused by infectious diseases. All medical procedures, however, carry with them some risk. Fortunately, in the case of vaccination, serious adverse responses are very infrequent. Veterinarians minimize risk by carefully selecting vaccines on the basis of a pet’s individual needs and by choosing appropriate injection sites. In an effort to find ways to prevent even these limited numbers of adverse responses from occurring, the AVMA is working with government and industry to redefine how information regarding adverse responses is gathered, analyzed, and disseminated.
What should I think about when deciding to travel with my pet?
here are numerous considerations you should take into account:
Make sure your pet is comfortable with travelSome pets cannot handle travel because of illness, injury, age or temperament.
If your pet is not good with travel, you should consider a reliable pet-sitter or talk to your veterinarian about boarding facilities in your area.
Make sure your pet has identification tags with up-to-date information.
Having your pet implanted with a microchip can improve your chances of getting your pet back if it becomes lost. The microchip must be registered with your current contact information, including a cell phone number. A tag is included when you have a microchip that has the microchip number and a mobile contact of the owner, so if the pet is found, they can use the tag to determine ownership without having to contact a veterinarian. Contact the microchip company for a replacement tag if you’ve lost yours, and for information on how to update your personal information when traveling.
If you are taking your pet across state or international borders, a health certificate is required. The health certificate must be signed by a veterinarian after your pet has been examined and found to be free of disease. Your pet’s vaccinations must be up to date in order for the health certificate to be completed.
Make sure that your pet is allowed where you are staying. Some accommodations will allow pets and some will not, so check in advance. Also, when traveling, you should bring a portable kennel with you if you have to leave your pet unattended.Staying with Friends or Family: Inform your host that your pet will be coming along and make sure that your pet is a welcomed guest as well.
Staying in a Hotel or Motel: Stay at a pet friendly place. Some hotels and motels only accept small pets or pets under a certain weight; when making a reservation, make sure you inquire about the terms of their pet policy. Try to minimize the amount of time your pet will be alone in the room. When leaving your pet alone in the room, inform the front desk that your pet is being left alone in the room and place a “Do Not Disturb” sign on the door. Make sure the hotel/motel knows how they can contact you if there are any problems.
Staying at a Park, Campground or Marina: Make sure these places are pet friendly, clean up after your pet and always keep your pet on a leash.
Whom should I contact as I am considering travel arrangements?
All of the following are important:Your veterinarian
The airline or travel company
The accommodations: hotel, motel, park, camping ground or marina
The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal & Plant Inspection Service, Veterinary Services: www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/sregs or 800-545-USDA (8732) and press #2 for State Regulations
Foreign Consulate or Regulatory Agency (if traveling to another country)If you are traveling to another country (or even Hawaii), there may be quarantine or other health requirements
If traveling out of the continental United States, you should contact these agencies at least 4 weeks in advance
When does a pet become “old”?
It varies, but cats and small dogs are generally considered geriatric at the age of 7. Larger breed dogs tend to have shorter life spans and are considered geriatric when they are approximately 6 years of age. Owners tend to want to think of their pet’s age in human terms. While it is not as simple as “1 human year = X cat/dog years”, there are calculations that can help put a pet’s age in human terms:
Cat Years – Human Years
7 – 45
10 – 58
15 – 75
20 – 98
Dog Years – Human Years
7 – Small – Medium: 44-47; Large – Very large: 50-56
10 – Small – Medium: 56-60; Large – Very large: 66-78
15 – Small – Medium: 76-83; Large – Very large: 93-115
20 – Small – Medium: 96-105; Large: 120